Category: Personality

Adjustment through responsibility, the hyper normal personality type. These individuals are most comfortable when conforming to the conception of “normalcy”, and any thoughts or actions outside of the norm cause anxiety. Like the narcissistic and autocratic personality types, they may present themselves as strong and self-confident but they do so in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. They want to have strong affiliations with certain others, they want to help, counsel, support and sympathize in order to make others view them as tender, reasonable and responsible. They are often leaned upon and depended upon by others as they strive to fulfill the idealized role of successful conventionality.
In its maladaptive form, those with this personality type are unable to exhibit passive or aggressive or bitter personality traits even when called for or appropriate. When this personality type is exaggerated these types of people may try to be helpful and responsible when inappropriate or make promises or offer help that they can’t fulfill, all in an attempt to maintain ideals of contribution to others and conventionality to normalcy. They avoid feelings of rebelliousness or frustration, anything that deviates from the norm. They are the ideal “neighbors” to put it that way. In its intense form, the overly motherly woman, the compulsive popularity seeker or the overprotective parent, intense forms of this personality type may pull resentment or frustration in others.
They are most comfortable when appearing mature and generous and involved in close, friendly protective relationships with friendly submissive-docile others and most anxious when appearing defeated, deprived, unfriendly or unlinked are potential outcomes.


Adjustment through power-the autocratic personality type-these people behave in ways that can be described as ambitious, energetic, playful organization and leadership. In reflective response, people with this personality type tend to “pull” or “push” others into respectful admiration, submission or dependence, looking up to the autocratic personality type.
Power in this personality type can be manifested in many different ways, physical power,( strength in males can win respect, as beauty in females can win admiration or respect),status power or intellectual power are just some examples.
As the judge was used as example of an adjusted individual who uses the sadistic means of adjustment/personality functioning; the teacher is an example of a common member of society who uses this method of adjustment in a socially accepted manner. The position of teacher inherently comes with some degree of autocratic superiority as the teacher-learner role playing game, for the teacher, says to others ” I know something you don’t know, I am wise and or better informed on this subject manner than you are”.
When this behavior is exhibited with abnormally high consistency and or oscillation, the person may compulsively seek control, become power-hungry or unrealistic ally over-ambitious. Even when inappropriate these individuals may try to be planful, precise and efficient, always competent and in control. They are afraid of feelings of weakness, uncertainty or anything that makes them appear incompetent or not in control. They want to avoid feeling uncertain, confused, submissive or passive. Self-esteem is maintained by placing themselves/operating in a way which maintains the illusionary buffer of protection that perceived control over themselves, others, objects and situations offers against the mysteries and uncontrollable possibilities of reality.
Again, this behavior tends to pull obedience, respectful submission or genuine respect/admiration from others. The autocratic person who demonstrates planful organization and competence is often respected by others. However, in the case of two individuals who both exhibit extreme autocratic personality types a power struggle may occur. In most cases, however, the autocratic personality type will ‘train’ the other person into symbolically inversely ‘matching’ their autocratic traits with flattery, obedience and respect or admiration. This type of relationship is reciprocal and self-sustaining, one who displays leadership through competence or organization will often pull passive followers did admiration in others, which in turn, encourages, confirms and re-enforces the original leadership role.

The narcisstic personality type can be seen as a means of adjustment through competition. These types of individuals tend to express clear love and approval of themselves. In the adaptive sense, they are self-confident and independent. In a maladaptive sense they are so self-oriented and constantly seek self-enhancement and this is so exaggerated that they fail to see the inappropriateness of their behavior. Proud display of self in attitude, dress, prestige or gesture or other means make these individuals most comfortable. Their self-esteem or personality construct is dependent upon demonstrating weakness in others and competitive strength and independence in themselves. The competitive narcisstic person is made uncomfortable by the thought of appearing dependent or weak. The specific purpose is to establish superiority in relation to others.

This type of behavior can pull envy, distrust, and feelings of inferiority in others. In some cases, this behavior can pull respectful admiration from others.

The sadistic personality: This attempts to explain why some people select negative, aggression and hostile expressions as their means of adjustment or way of functioning (personality). The sadistic personality type includes those who seem to enjoy punishing or threatening others and are made uncomfortable by thoughts of weakness, collaboration with others or tender docility. Those with a sadistic personality type may engage in criminal aggressive behavior, destructive violence or socially disapproved sadism or extreme punitive insult or sarcasm. However, unlike many personality theories that would say a judge, for example, is an upstanding, psychologically healthy member of society, this theory would say some judges fall into this personality type because they have found a socially approved manner of displaying punitive, sadistic characteristics. Those who are socially approved (have a sadistic personality but don’t display it to an extreme) may maintain a consistently punishing or disciplinary attitude towards others (judge). Some may have a sarcastic attitude or guilt-provoking attitude.

When these individuals are acting tough, stern or displaying stern coldness they are least anxious. “Flexing their muscles” or other actions that convey to others, directly or indirectly and subtly that they are a dangerous person to be feared is what the personality type “says” to others. On the other hand, it also says that they are most uncomfortable in situations that ask for them to be agreeable or express tender feelings towards others. With this type of personality the stern, unforgiving father or father figure, the guilt-provoking mother or motherly figure, sharp-tongued sarcastic husband or cold, grim-faced punitive official figure come to mind.

This personality type has a lot of leverage, social ‘danger’ is what one tries to avoid and this personality type seeks to “put others in their place” so to speak. The actions seek to make the other person they are interacting with feel inferior or unworthy and make the sadistic personality type feel righteous, powerful and self-satisfying.

Theory of personality

There are many different theories of personality. Many theories may have been taught in class, like Freud, Jung, Skinner or Rogers. The inter-personal theory of personality is almost like the opposite of behaviorism. In contrast to behaviorism, which focuses only on the external-observable, the inter-personal theory of personality concentrates on the internal. There are a few basic principles which are the building blocks of the theory. First, it states that all behavior is an attempt to avoid anxiety or select a lesser anxiety over a higher anxiety. Second, it establishes four levels of personality or behavior; the first level is the observable, what we see people do. The second level is more internal, it is what we think we do, it is important to note that someone may think they are being kind or authoritative (at the 2nd level) but on the surface, external level, others may conclude that they aren’t being kind or authoritative, this helps give insight to the individuals inter-personal make-up. The third level is much more internal and very deep and involves what an individual wants to become their ideal self or dream self, and can be correlated with sub or unconscious motivation behind some of their behavior or actions. The fourth and final level is the most complicated and involves how the person is constantly changing relative to their self and their environment. The theory incorporates a total of 16 personality types, which are as follows: Managerial, Autocraic, Responsible, Hyper-Normal, Cooperative, Over-Conventional, Docile, Dependent, Self-effacing, Masochistic, Rebellious, Distrustful, Aggressive, Sadistic, Competitive and Narcisstic. The theory also states that human interaction is a constant game of push-pull, for example, someone who is overly docile, by admiring, imitating or constantly asking for help or advice may push the other person they are interacting with to behave in a managerial type manner, give advice, lead, direct. The core of the theory is that say the docile person in the example above, they are most comfortable when being led by others or helped by others, and they form personality-behavior patterns that try to ‘push’ others into behaving that way. In this theory, psychological disorders are identified by showing a lack of some personality type (sometimes it is appropriate to be aggressive to a degree etc.) or an extreme favoritism of a personality type, for example if one is so docile and dependent that they cling to others like a vine and are completely helpless and incapable of being autonomous this can lead to problems.