One common type of retrieval failure is the Tip-of-the-tongue phenomena – you know you know the meaning of a word, or the answer to a question, but you can’t retrieve it.

But sometimes, we simply don’t encode well. Even a highly familiar item may not have a detailed representation in memory.

  • when provided with the information in memory,
  • just double check that we’ve seen it before.
  • includes: feeling of familiarity, matching, multiple. choice, True/False on exams, recognizing someone you know…