A fear is a normal emotion that everyone experiences and can easily overcome it.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, which are disorders in a person wherein they feel anxious about a certain object or situation. phobias are irrational fears of a certain object or situation. It is an uncontrollable feeling and cannot be easily overcome.

The difference between normal fear and a phobia
Normal fear Phobia
Feeling anxious when flying through turbulence or taking off during a storm Not going to your best friend’s island wedding because you’d have to fly there
Experiencing butterflies when peering down from the top of a skyscraper or climbing a tall ladder Turning down a great job because it’s on the 10th floor of the office building
Getting nervous when you see a pit bull or a Rottweiler Steering clear of the park because you might see a dog
Feeling a little queasy when getting a shot or when your blood is being drawn Avoiding necessary medical treatments or doctor’s checkups because you’re terrified of needles

 references:

http://helpguide.org/mental/phobia_symptoms_types_treatment.htm

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